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The assembly of the gut microbiota begins at birth, characterized by a rapid rate of colonization and expansion of gut bacteria dominated by Actinobacteriaand ProteobacteriaEvolving into a community dominated by Firmicutesand Bacteroidetes.
Experiments in animal models have shown that this process is physiologically related to synaptogenesis in the cerebral cortex. Seminal studies in germless mice highlighted that early colonization with complete microbiota without a specific pathogen improved brain development and behavioral abnormalities. Cross-sectional clinical studies have also associated altered microbial composition with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, autism spectrum disorders, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke.
In infants, this mechanistic relationship has not been empirically demonstrated, but several associations between gut microbiota and behavior have been reported. Altered microbial composition of the gut has been reported in children with autism and has been linked to infant temperament between 18 and 27 months, as well as cognition at 2 years, and communication, motor skills, personal and social life. skills.
The present study investigated whether the gut microbiota was associated with infant neurodevelopment in 71 healthy 18 month old full term infants (45 boys and 26 girls) selected from the panel of infants belonging to the study cohort. observational PREOBE (mothers were recruited between 2007 and 2012 at San Cecilio and Mother-Child University Hospitals in Granada, Spain).
The researchers used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for analysis of the gut microbiota of infants, with stool samples taken at 18 months of age. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III).
Children were grouped according to behavioral trait performance into groups above and below the median for their fine motor activity.
The resulting data revealed a significant association between gut microbiota and fine motor skills, which the authors said was robust to fit for infant, maternal, nutritional, and perinatal variables.
By monitoring pre-gestational maternal BMI and breastfeeding up to 3 months, examination showed that Turicibacter and Parabacteroides were very abundant in the lower than median fine motor group of infants. While Collinsella, Coprococcus, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, Holdemanella, Propionibacterium, Roseburia, Veillonella, Bifidobacteriumand Lactobacilliwere more abundant in the above-median fine motor group.
The report states: “Our study adds to the growing evidence linking the gut microbiota to the gut-brain axis, where the initial stages of colonization and assembly of the gut may be linked to neurodevelopmental outcomes with potential long-term associations. These results suggest targeting negatively associated species such as Turicibacter and Parabacteroides in appropriate mouse models, and inviting further interventional studies using strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to influence motor skills outcomes in infants. “
This is the first published prospective study of infants to link enterotypes and infant neurodevelopment.
Identification of taxa
This is the first published prospective study of infants showing poorer fine motor performance in infants with Bacteroids– dominant community. These results confirm the observations of Sordillo et al. On the association of Bacteroids– dominated co-abundance group with lower fine motor scores.
The present study also identified taxa that differed significantly in abundance between groups. Motor skills in the lower than median group were associated with increased abundance of Turicibacterand Parabacteroids. This is the first report of an association between these taxa and host behavior in healthy infants.
Finegold et al. Established a list of significant genera among severely autistic vs non-sibling control samples, where Turicibacterand Parabacteroidswere significantly increased in autistic children.
Motor coordination disorders are a common condition in children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. In the current cohort, improved fine motor skills were associated with increased abundance of eleven genera, including CoprococcusAnd an unassigned gender within Veillonellaceae. Kang et al. Reported that Coprococcusand downgrade Veillonellaceaewere less abundant in people with autism compared to neurotypical controls aged 3 to 16 years.
The authors of the present study say that a particularly interesting result in the above-median group was an overabundance of Lactobacilliand Bifidobacterium, The most important and widely used kind of probiotic.
Acuña I, Cerdó T, Ruiz A, et al
Infant intestinal microbiota associated with fine motor skills